What? Vice Provosts and Presidents and Chancellors commit sexual harassment?

Complete as of March 16, 2018. For the most up-to-date list of cases and to see additional cases across institutions and disciplines, visit NOT A FLUKE.

It has been two years since I began compiling cases of academic sexual misconduct perpetrated by faculty, staff, and administrators. This seems like a good time to post about individual groups and disciplines.

(1) 1991: David McIntire, Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs, University of Missouri-Columbia. RESIGNED POST, REMAINED ON FACULTY. http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1991/University-Official-Accused-of-Sexual-Harassment-Denied-$84-000-Leave/id-a3749efcea6a74199b044a6c031b11f1

(2) 1993: J. Floyd Tyler, Senior Vice-President for Business Affairs, College of Charleston. RETIRED/INSURANCE FUND PAYMENT TO STUDENT. http://chronicle.com/article/Student-Gets-75000-in/70603

(3) 1993: Mark Urban, Deputy Vice President of University Development and Alumni Relations, Columbia University. RESIGNED AFTER UNIVERSITY INVESTIGATION. http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/812/413/1761741/

(4) 2005: Keith Parker, Associate Provost for Institutional Diversity, University of Georgia. DEMOTED. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2005/08/01/uga

(5) 2008: Isaac Sanders, Vice President of Advancement, East Stroudsburg University. SUSPENDED THEN FIRED. http://www.poconorecord.com/article/20140416/NEWS/404160321

(6) 2008: Greg Sandoval, Vice President for Student Affair, Southwestern College. RESIGNED. http://legacy.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/metro/20080607-9999-1m7resign.html

(7) 2008: Robert Shindell, Associate Vice President for Recruiting and Admissions, Texas Tech University. CHARGES “SUBSTANTIATED”, RESIGNED. http://lubbockonline.com/stories/061208/cri_289491671.shtml#.VuAxvymlpDl

(8) 2012: Diane Leite, Assistant Vice Chancellor, University of California-Berkeley. REASSIGNED TO NEW POSITION. http://www.mercurynews.com/ci_20183348/uc-berkeley-professors-condemn-light-punishment-administrator

(9) 2014: Graham Fleming, Vice Chancellor for Research, UC Berkeley. RESIGNED. http://www.dailycal.org/2015/04/12/uc-berkeley-vice-chancellor-for-research-resigns-after-sexual-harassment-allegations/

(10) 2014: Marvin Roberts, Assistant Vice President of Student Engagement and Diversity, Utah State University. FIRED. http://www.sltrib.com/news/1794027-155/roberts-student-police-university-alleged-usu

(11) 2015: Jesse Acosta, Vice President of Administration and Chief Business Officer, University of Texas – Tyler. RESIGNED. http://www.tylerpaper.com/TP-News+Local/221240/ut-tyler-vp-resigns-after-investigation

(12) 2015: Jeffrey Luftig, Associate Vice Chancellor for Process Innovation, University of Colorado. RETIRED AND LAWSUIT SETTLED. http://www.campussafetymagazine.com/article/univ_of_colo_paying_80k_to_settle_sexual_harassment_lawsuit/Lawsuits#

(13) 2015: Han Reichgelt, Regional Vice Chancellor of Academic Affairs, University of South Florida – St. Petersburg. FOUND IN VIOLATION OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT POLICY. RESIGNED POST AND JOINED FACULTY AS ONLINE INSTRUCTOR. See link for details and documents: http://crowsneststpete.com/2016/11/21/sexual-harassment-incident-led-to-ouster-of-top-academic-officer/

(14) 2016: T.W. Cauthen, Associate Vice President for Academic, Campus and Community Partnerships in the Division of Student Affairs, University of Georgia. RESIGNED OVER INAPPROPRIATE RELATIONSHIPS. http://flagpole.com/news/in-the-loop/uga-administrator-resigns-after-reports-of-inappropriate-relationships

(15) 2017: David Carrera, Vice President of Advancement and Health Sciences Development, University of Southern California. “LEFT JOB” IN MIDST OF ONGOING SEXUAL HARASSMENT INVESTIGATION. http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-usc-fundraising-harassment-20171011-story.html

Provosts and Chancellors commit sexual harassment too…

Complete as of March 16, 2018. For the most up-to-date list of cases and to see additional cases across institutions and disciplines, visit NOT A FLUKE.

It has been two years since I began compiling cases of academic sexual misconduct perpetrated by faculty, staff, and administrators. This seems like a good time to post about individual groups and disciplines.

(1) 1987: H. Daniel Cohen, Chancellor, Indiana University South Bend. RESIGNED FROM POSITION – RETAINED POSITION AS TENURED PHYSICS PROFESSOR – AND LOST CIVIL LAWSUIT. (Note – he did it again – see PHYSICS FACULTY, below). http://indianalawblog.com/archives/2009/08/ind_decisions_r_31.html

(2) 1997: Chernoh Sesay, Provost. RESIGNED TO BECOME PROVOST AT PATERSON COLLEGE. JURY AWARD OF $200,000 TO ACCUSER. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1997-12-17/news/9712170272_1_provost-tenured-professor-awarded

(3) 2003: Fred Gaskin, Chancellor, Maricopa Community College District. FIRED. http://www.eastvalleytribune.com/local/education/article_3ae669e9-8556-5b39-b651-7b12ce7f8139.html

(4) 2011: Garland Anderson, Provost, University of Texas Medical Branch. RESIGNED (SORT OF – READ ARTICLE). http://www.houstonchronicle.com/news/health/article/After-harassment-claims-UTMB-officials-got-new-5398415.php

(5) 2012: Roy Flores, Chancellor, Pima Community College. RETIRED AND LAWSUIT SETTLED. http://www.tucsonnewsnow.com/story/20221749/pima-college-settled-sexual-harrassment-claim

(6) 2013: Rosalyn Templeton, Provost, Montana State University-Northern. FIRED, HEARING OFFICER AWARDS DAMAGES TO COMPLAINANT IN 2016. http://flatheadbeacon.com/2016/04/26/hearing-officer-awards-175k-harassed-msu-northern-dean/

Did you know at least 29 college presidents have been found in violation of sexual misconduct or harassment policies?

Complete as of March 16, 2018. For the most up-to-date list of cases and to see additional cases across institutions and disciplines, visit NOT A FLUKE.

It has been two years since I began compiling cases of academic sexual misconduct perpetrated by faculty, staff, and administrators. This seems like a good time to post about individual groups and disciplines.

(1) 1982: Ambrose Garner, President, Hillsborough Community College. SUSPENDED FOR THREE MONTHS. https://casetext.com/case/garner-v-state-comn-of-ethics

(2) 1984: Geoffrey Peters, President and Dean, William Mitchell College of Law. RESIGNED http://www.nytimes.com/1984/03/23/us/minnesota-law-school-sued-in-a-sexual-harassment-case.html AND LAWSUIT SETTLED. http://tinyurl.com/hrxz9lp

(3) 1986: Francis J. Pilecki, President, Westfield State College. SUSPENSION RECOMMENDED, RESIGNED. http://www.nytimes.com/1986/07/02/us/college-sexual-assault-case-stirs-massachusetts.html

(4) 1987: William S. Gaither, President, Drexel University. RESIGNED. http://articles.philly.com/1987-10-25/news/26212499_1_college-presidents-leadership-style-gaither

(5) 1992: James B. Holderman, President, University of South Carolina. RESIGNED, IMPRISONED FOR UNRELATED CHARGES. http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/1991-12-08/news/9112080586_1_holderman-usc-president-tenured AND http://www.thestate.com/news/special-reports/state-125/article52824590.html

(6) 1993: Leon Howard, President, Alabama State University. JURY FINDING OF FACT http://chronicle.com/article/Jury-Determines-Ex-President/70533 AND LAWSUIT SETTLED. http://chronicle.com/article/Alabama-State-to-Pay-575000/72829

(7) 1994: John N. Mangieri, President, Arkansas State University. FIRED/STRIPPED OF TENURE. http://chronicle.com/article/Ex-President-of-Arkansas-State/84403

(8) 1995: J. Gilbert Leal, President, Texas State Technical College. SUSPENDED WITHOUT PAY FOR THREE MONTHS FOR “INAPPROPRIATE” RELATIONSHIP. http://chronicle.com/article/Texas-President-Suspended-for/83867

(9) 1995: Donald Bronsard, President, Luzerne County Community College. RESIGNED. http://archives.timesleader.com/1995/1995_16/1995_11_01_BRONSARD_AT_COLLEGE_IN_FLORIDA_HE_WAS_FORCED_TO_RESIGN_AS_LCCC_P.html AND http://archive.timesleader.com/1995/1995_05/1995_03_24_ACCUSERS__LAWYER_WANTS_LCCC_REPORT_PUBLIC_THE_DOCUMENT_REPORTEDL.html

(10) 1999: Gilbert M. Dominguez, President, Imperial Valley College. LAWSUIT SETTLED. http://chronicle.com/article/College-Agrees-to-Settle/23153

(11) 2000: Charles D. Hays, President, Century College. RESIGNED. http://chronicle.com/article/College-President-Resigns/105074

(12) 2000: David Rubino, President, Gannon University. RESIGNED. http://www.leagle.com/decision/20041016350FSupp2d666_1960/PETRUSKA%20v.%20GANNON%20UNIVERSITY

(13) 2001: Owen Cargol, President, Northern Arizona University. RESIGNED http://wc.arizona.edu/papers/95/62/01_5.html AND WAS HIRED IN 2007 AS CHANCELLOR FOR AMERICAN UNIVERSITY-IRAQ. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2008/06/11/not-our-best-and-brightest

(14) 2002: Arthur R. Taylor, President, Muhlenberg College. RESIGNED. http://chronicle.com/article/Muhlenberg-President-Quits/12618

(15) 2002: Arnold J. Levine, President, Rockefeller University. RESIGNED. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/02/11/nyregion/amid-inquiry-president-of-rockefeller-u-resigns.html

(16) 2004 (and in 1995): Lee E. Monroe, President, Paul Quinn College in 1995 (http://chronicle.com/article/5-Million-Lawsuit-Accuses/97333) and Voorhees College in 2004. LEGAL FINDING OF FACT IN 2004. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2007/05/02/voorhees

(17) 2006: Leroy Sanchez, President, Luna Community College. RETIRED, U.S. DEPT. OF JUSTICE FILED LAWSUIT AGAINST SCHOOL. http://chronicle.com/article/Federal-Lawsuit-Accuses/42220

(18) 2006: Philip M. Ringle, President, Truckee Meadows Community College. LEGAL FINDING OF FACT. Read summary and comments: http://nv.findacase.com/research/wfrmDocViewer.aspx/xq/fac.20051222_0000028.DNV.htm/qx AND http://chronicle.com/article/College-Settles-Sex-Harassment/36950

(19) 2006: Charles Carlsen, President, Johnson County Community College. RETIRED. http://cjonline.com/stories/102106/kan_carlsen.shtml#.Vt7j_ymlpDk

(20) 2006: Craig J. Franz, President, Saint Mary’s College of California. RESIGNED FROM POSITION AT SAINT MARY’S UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA (WHERE HE WENT AFTER LEAVING POST IN CALIFORNIA). https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2006/12/21/franz

(21) 2007: Sidney A. McPhee, President, Middle Tennessee State University. ONE YEAR SALARY REDUCTION, REQUIRED SEXUAL HARASSMENT TRAINING. http://www.murfreesboropost.com/news.php?viewStory=3868

(22) 2007: William Merwin, President, Florida Gulf Coast University. RESIGNED OVER INAPPROPRIATE RELATIONSHIP WITH FACULTY MEMBER. http://archive.naplesnews.com/news/local/fgcu-president-merwin-resigns-after-inappropriate-relationship-ep-405013798-345700912.html

(23) 2011: Roy J. Nirschel, President, Roger Williams University. RESIGNED. http://chronicle.com/article/Complaint-Reveals-That-Roger/128591

(24) 2013: John Ellis Price, President, University of North Texas-Dallas. STEPPED DOWN AS PRESIDENT/RESIGNED FACULTY POSITION WHEN HARASSMENT BECAME PUBLIC. http://www.dallasnews.com/news/community-news/denton/headlines/20150618-former-unt-dallas-leader-resigns-amid-investigation-into-relationship-with-former-employee.ece

(25) 2014: Johnson Bia, President, Pima Community College – Desert Vista Campus. RESIGNED. http://www.tucsonsentinel.com/local/report/050114_pcc_bia/pccs-bia-resigns-over-sexual-harassment-allegations/

(26) 2014: Patrick Lanning, President, Chemeketa Community College – Yamhill Valley Campus. FIRED. http://www.statesmanjournal.com/story/news/education/2014/11/09/fired-ccc-official-accused-sexual-harassment/18758999/

(27) 2015: David Alexander, President, Northwest Nazarene University. RESIGNED BECAUSE OF EARLIER INAPPROPRIATE RELATIONSHIP AS PROFESSOR. http://www.idahopress.com/news/local/education/nnu-former-president-resigned-over-inappropriate-relationship/article_60fe1284-281e-11e5-89a6-3346ab104b89.html

(28) 2017: Ricardo Romo, President, University of Texas – San Antonio. PLACED ON ADMINISTRATIVE LEAVE, THEN RESIGNED. http://diverseeducation.com/article/93984/

(29) 2018 (for harassment and resignation in 1917): William F. Slocum, President, Colorado College. INVESTIGATED AND ASKED TO LEAVE BY BOARD FOR HARASSMENT, RESIGNED, NAMES REMOVED FROM BUILDINGS IN 2018. https://www.chronicle.com/article/Colorado-College-Removes/242818?cid=wcontentlist_hp_latest AND https://libraryweb.coloradocollege.edu/library/specialcollections/Manuscript/Slocum.html


Complete as of March 16, 2018. For the most up-to-date list of cases and to see additional cases across institutions and disciplines, visit NOT A FLUKE.

It has been two years since I began compiling cases of academic sexual misconduct perpetrated by faculty, staff, and administrators. This seems like a good time to post about individual groups and disciplines.


(1) 1983: Anatomy Department, University of Iowa. LEGAL FINDING OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT. http://www.leagle.com/decision/19901695749FSupp946_11540/JEW%20v.%20UNIVERSITY%20OF%20IOWA AND http://www.nytimes.com/1990/09/02/style/campus-life-iowa-judge-finds-university-liable-in-harassment.html

(2) 1991: Literature Section of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. PROVOST SUSPENDED SECTION’S RIGHT TO MAKE PERSONNEL DECISIONS. LAWSUIT FILED. http://chronicle.com/article/Literature-Professor-Sues-MIT/82118 AND LAWSUIT SETTLED. http://chronicle.com/article/MIT-Professor-Reach/73326

(3) 2000: Engineering School, University of Rhode Island. PUBLIC ACKNOWLEDGEMENT BY UNIVERSITY PRESIDENT. http://chronicle.com/article/U-of-Rhode-Island-Admits-That/30446

(4) 2005: Communications Department, University of Pittsburgh. REVIEW BY OUTSIDE FACULTY FOUND DEPARTMENT TO BE UNHEALTHY PLACE FOR WOMEN FACULTY AND GRADUATE STUDENTS. http://www.pghcitypaper.com/pittsburgh/communication-breakdown/Content?oid=1338247

(5) 2006: Political Science Department, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. LAWSUIT FILED, COMMITTEE FINDING THAT DEPARTMENT TOLERATES SEXUAL HARASSMENT. http://www.dailynebraskan.com/political-science-professor-alleges-sexual-harassment/article_99548bfb-7003-51d2-bcee-532fb5f7fcfa.html and http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp2/112/908/2521407/

(6) 2014: Philosophy Department, University of Colorado-Boulder. CHAIR REMOVED, GRADUATE ADMISSIONS SUSPENDED. http://www.dailycamera.com/ci_25035043 AND LAWSUIT SETTLED. http://www.kmblegal.com/news/kmb-client-settles-title-ix-lawsuit-against-cu-boulder

(7) 2017: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Wisconsin – Madison. FACULTY REVIEW COMMITTEE FOUND PERSISTENT SEXISM, INCLUDING SEXUAL HARASSMENT; DEPARTMENT MERGED WITH ANOTHER UNIT. http://host.madison.com/wsj/news/local/education/university/legacy-of-sexism-and-allegations-of-sexual-harassment-mar-uw/article_220cc4f3-3b0a-575a-898d-9c63711659c8.html

Recurring Damage from Sexual Assault and Harassment

I work at Michigan State University, have seen how the Title IX reporting process works from the inside, and have watched the Larry Nassar case unfold from close up. I am not sure most people understand how traumatic simply reading or watching the news can be for those of us who have experienced sexual assault and harassment. The Nassar case brought up my own history of sexual violence, and I found myself struggling to do even the most mundane tasks. I laid on the couch for a weekend, trying to escape into books or television to avoid the internal trauma I was experiencing. The trauma of assault is ever present, even after years of therapy.

The Nassar case was an assault that went far beyond his victims. The whirlwind of emotions this case triggered can relate to both the initial violation and the pain associated with reporting the misconduct and the bureaucracy of the Title IX system. I have spoken with several students who were so triggered by the Nassar case that they were unable to do simple tasks.  For some, the act of getting out of bed was difficult, let alone going to class. Some victims of sexual assault or harassment are able to seek out counseling to address the effects of their assaults. Seeking help takes energy and effort (and money), and the depression that can set in after a triggering event can often get in the way of seeking help. Sexual assault is a vicious, recurring event that revisits us in our minds and bodies. I know my own health and well-being were and continue to be affected.

For over two years I have been tracking academic sexual misconduct. The documenting of these events can in itself be triggering, and I recently had to take a two week break to preserve my own sanity. This is necessary labor, but it can be more draining than I initially realized. I have resources, privilege attendant to my position, and a supportive network of friends, family, and pets (unconditional love is amazing!). I can only imagine how difficult triggering events must be for student, many of whom have fewer resources than I do.

What can faculty do? I strongly encourage faculty to recognize that students can be negatively affected by all sorts of events, from national news about sexual assault to school shootings. We all have personal histories, and those histories affect us differently. Try to put yourself in your students’ shoes, and imagine what you would need from your professors. You can reach out to students without invading anyone’s privacy – there is no need to ask for details. Instead, look into the resources offered by your university and create a short list of the best resources. I created two sheets of institutional resources (MSUresources) to post on my door and upload to course websites – perhaps you can create something similar for your own spaces.



Graduate Student Patricia Jaimes Wins Leadership Award

The Geocognition Research Lab is at it again! Graduate student Patricia Jaimes has been awarded the COGS Disciplinary Leadership Award. Paty’s award was given in honor of her work with the MSU Chapter of the Society for the Advancement of Chicano/Hispanic and Native American Students in Science (SACNAS) and the MSU Upward Bound program. Well done, Paty, and congratulations on this honor. Your work to increase diversity in academia and science is amazing!

Why Sexual Misconduct in Academia Needs to Be Made Public

I have spent two-plus years documenting sexual harassment and misconduct in academia. Many universities go to great lengths to ensure that these cases are downplayed – while I have uncovered 614 cases of faculty/administrator sexual misconduct, undoubtedly there are many more cases that remain hidden from public view. In addition, in many of these cases: 1) the perpetrators resigned or retired and investigations ended without any findings, and/or 2) publicly available reports are anonymized with respect to perpetrator names and departments. Many institutions claim that they cannot release the names of individuals found to have committed sexual misconduct by claiming that “personnel matters” are private, or because resolutions were reached through negotiations that included non-disclosure agreements.

Recent high-profile cases illustrate the importance of disclosing the names of sexual misconduct perpetrators to protect communities. In one case, a professor and doctor (Nassar) at Michigan State University was sentenced to a lifetime in prison for assaulting AT LEAST 250 young women. In a second case, a Harvard University government professor (Domínguez) has announced his retirement after over twenty women came forward to accuse him of sexual harassment.

In the Michigan State case, questions remain about how the university handled multiple complaints about Nassar – at least FOURTEEN people at MSU were aware of complaints against him over two decades. The fact that Nassar was a sexual predator would have remained a secret save for the bravery of one woman – Rachel Denhollander – and her publicizing the abuse she suffered. This one woman started an avalanche of similar stories from hundreds of women. If she had not come forward, how many more atrocities would Nassar have been able to commit with impunity?

In the Harvard case, the campus newspaper reported Domínguez’s sexual harassment in the 80s. I was unable to find reports on this case outside of the institution. Terry Karl, the woman who was brave enough to speak openly about Domínguez’s abuse, appeared in a 1991 Stanford newspaper article about her experience reporting her harassment. However, it wasn’t until a Chronicle of Higher Education story in February 2018 that Dr. Karl’s story became national news. Within a few weeks, so many women had come forward to also report their abuse that Harvard opened a new investigation and Domínguez announced his retirement.

These two cases are not isolated. Cantalupo and Kidder (2017) reviewed cases of faculty harassment of students and found that MORE THAN HALF of perpetrators were serial harassers. Here are a few more examples from my list of cases:

What can we learn from these cases? Cantalupo and Kidder (2017) have clearly documented that serial harassment is common, and my own read of documented cases supports their conclusion. Given that most cases of harassment never see the light of day, we should question if the number of serial harassers would be higher if victims/survivors* were able to publicly tell their stories. How many more cases are hiding behind institutional legalese, and how many more harassers are able to walk the halls, unimpeded? Enough is enough. Let us own the behavior of our colleagues, call them out, and make sure our colleges and universities are safe spaces for everyone.

*We are both victims and survivors. I honor the experience of being harassed and assaulted as complicated, and something that can be survived even as we continue to be victimized.



Climate science education research: a short bibliography

More and more, scientists are becoming interested in understanding the ways in which the general public, students, and even scientists understand climate science. Here is a short – and thus incomplete – set of papers researchers might find useful for developing research questions around climate science in education, communication, or similar fields.

Andersson, B., & Wallin, A. (2000). Students’ understanding of the greenhouse effect, the societal consequences of reducing CO2 emissions and the problem of ozone layer depletion. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(10), 1096-1111.

Bodzin, A. M., Anastasio, D., Sahagian, D., Peffer, T., Dempsey, C., & Steelman, R. (2014). Investigating climate change understandings of urban middle-level students. Journal of Geoscience Education, 62(3), 417-430.

Boon, H. J. (2010). Climate change? Who knows? A comparison of secondary students and pre-service teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35, 104-120.

Bostrom, A., Morgan, M. G., Fischhoff, B., & Read, D. (1994). What do people know about global climate change? 1. Mental models. Risk Analysis, 14(6), 959-970.

Boyes, E., Skamp, K., & Stanisstreet, M. (2009). Australian secondary students’ views about global warming: Beliefs about actions, and willingness to act. Research in Science Education, 39(5), 661-680.

Center for Research on Environmental Decisions [CRED]. (2009). The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public. New York: Columbia University, CRED.

Cordero, E., Marie Todd, A., & Abellera, D. (2008). Climate change education and the ecological footprint. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89(6), 865–872.

Corner, A., Markowitz, E., & Pidgeon, N. (2014). Public engagement with climate change: the role of human values. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 5(3), 411-422.

Corner, A., Roberts, O., Chiari, S., Völler, S., Mayrhuber, E. S., Mandl, S., & Monson, K. (2015). How do young people engage with climate change? The role of knowledge, values, message framing, and trusted communicators. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 6(5), 523-534.

Feldman, L., Nisbet, M. C., Leiserowitz, A., & Maibach, E. (2010). The climate change generation? Survey analysis of the perceptions and beliefs of young Americans. Joint Report of American University’s School of Communication, The Yale Project on Climate Change, and George Mason University’s Center for Climate Change Communication. Retrieved from: http://environment.yale.edu/climate-communication-OFF/files/YouthJan2010.pdf

Francis C., Boyes, E., Qualter, A., & Stanisstreet, M. (1993). Ideas of elementary students about reducing the “greenhouse effect”. Science Education, 77(4), 375-392.

Grotzer, T., & Lincoln, R. (2007). Educating for “intelligent environmental action” in an age of global warming. In Creating a Climate for Change: Communicating Climate Change and Facilitating Social Change, edited by S.C. Moser and L. Dilling, (pp. 266-280). New York: Cambridge University Press

Guy, S., Kashima, Y., Walker, I., & O’Neill, S. (2014). Investigating the effects of knowledge and ideology on climate change beliefs. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44(5), 421-429.

Hamilton, L. C. (2008). Who cares about Polar Regions? Results from a survey of U.S. public opinion. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 40(4), 671-678.

Hamilton, L.C. (2011). Education, politics and opinions about climate change evidence for interaction effects. Climatic Change, 104(2), 231–242.

Harris. S.E., & Gold, A.U. 2017. Learning molecular behaviour may improve student explanatory models of the greenhouse effect. Environmental Education Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2017.1280448.

Hartley, L. M., Wilke, B. J., Schramm, J. W., D’Avanzo, C., & Anderson, C. W. (2011). College students’ understanding of the carbon cycle: Contrasting principle-based and informal reasoning. BioScience, 61(1), 65-75.

Kahan, D. M., Peters, E., Wittlin, M., Slovic, P., Ouellette, L. L., Braman, D., & Mandel, G. (2012). The polarizing impact of science literacy and numeracy on perceived climate change risks. Nature Climate Change, 2(10), 732-735.

Kerr, S. C., & Walz, K. A. (2007). Holes in student understanding: Addressing prevalent misconceptions regarding atmospheric environmental chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 84(10), 1693-1696.

Khalid, T. (2001). Pre-service Teachers’ Misconceptions Regarding Three Environmental Issues. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 6, 102-120.

Khalid, T. (2003). Pre-service high school teachers’ perceptions of three environmental phenomena. Environmental Education Research, 9(1), 35-50.

Lambert, J. L., & Bleicher, R. E. (2014). Improving Climate Change Communication Starting with Environmental Educators. Journal of Geoscience Education, 62(3), 388-401.

Lambert, J. L., Lindgren, J., & Bleicher, R. (2012). Assessing elementary science methods students’ understanding about global climate change. International Journal of Science Education, 34(8), 1167-1187.

Leiserowitz, A., Maibach, E., Roser-Renouf, C., & Hmielowski, J. (2012). Global Warming’s Six Americas, March, 2012 & Nov. 2011. New Haven, CT: Yale University and George Mason University, Yale Project on Climate Change Communication.

Leiserowitz, A., Smith, N. & Marlon, J.R. (2010) Americans’ Knowledge of Climate Change. Yale University. New Haven, CT: Yale Project on Climate Change Communication. Retrieved from: http://environment.yale.edu/climate/files/ClimateChangeKnowledge2010.pdf

Leiserowitz, A., Smith, N., & Marlon, J. R. (2011). American teens’ knowledge of climate change. Yale University. New Haven, CT: Yale Project on Climate Change Communication.

Lenzen, M., & Murray, J. (2001). The Role of Equity and Lifestyles in Education about Climate Change: Experiences from a Large-scale Teacher Development Program. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 6, 32-51.

Libarkin, J. C., Thomas, S. R., & Ording, G. (2015). Factor Analysis of Drawings: Application to college student models of the greenhouse effect. International Journal of Science Education, 37(13), 2214-2236.

Libarkin, J.C., Gold, A.U., Harris, S.E. McNeal, K.S., & Bowles, R. (2015). Psychometric Principles in Measurement for Geoscience Education Research: A Climate Change Example. In American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting Abstracts, San Fransciso, CA.

Lombardi, D., & Sinatra, G. M. (2012). College students’ perceptions about the plausibility of human-induced climate change. Research in Science Education, 42(2), 201-217.

Lombardi, D., & Sinatra, G.M. (2013). Emotions about teaching about human-induced climate change. International Journal of Science Education, 35(1), 167-191.

Maibach, E., Roser-Renouf, C., & Leiserowitz, A. (2009). Global warming’s six Americas 2009: An Audience Segmentation Analysis. Yale Project on Climate Change, Yale University and George Mason University, New Haven, CT.

Malka, A., Krosnick, J. A., & Langer, G. (2009). The association of knowledge with concern about global warming: Trusted information sources shape public thinking. Risk Analysis, 29(5), 633-647.

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